Textbooks & Reviews

Albert SF, Curran SA, FCPodMed FF. Lower Extremity Biomechanics: Theory and Practice Volume 1. Bipedmed, LLC; 2018.

Kirby KA. Foot and lower extremity biomechanics: A ten year collection of precision intricast newsletters. Precision Intricast, Incorporated; 1997.

Richie Jr DH. Pathomechanics of Common Foot Disorders. 2020

Scherer PR, Kirby KA, Choate C, Huppin LZ, Walters LL. Recent advances in orthotic therapy: improving clinical outcomes with a pathology-specific approach. Lower Extremity Review LLC; 2011.

Shapiro J, editor. Biomechanics of the Lower Extremity, An Issue of Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2019 Nov 28.


Arangio G and Salathe E. A biomechanical analysis of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy and flexor digitorum longus transfer in adult acquired flatfoot. Clinical Biomechanics, 2009; 24: 385 – 390

Arangio G, et al. A biomechanical analysis of the effect of lateral column lengthening calcaneal osteotomy of flatfoot. Clinical Biomechanics, 2007; 22: 472 – 477

Arangio G, et al. A biomechanical model of the effect of subtalar arthroereisis on the adult flexible flat foot. Clinical Biomechanics, 2004; 19: 847 – 852

Astion DJ, Deland JT, Otis JC, Kenneally S. Motion of the hindfoot after simulated arthrodesis. JBJS. 1997 Feb 1;79(2):241-6

Baxter JR, Demetracopoulos CA, Prado MP, Tharmviboonsri T, Deland JT. Lateral column lengthening corrects hindfoot valgus in a cadaveric flatfoot model. Foot & ankle international. 2015 Jun;36(6):705-9

Bierman R, Christensen J, Johnson C. Biomechanics of the First Ray Part III. Consequences of Lapidus Arthrodesis on Peroneus Longus Function: A Three-Dimensional Kinematic Study on a Cadaver Model. JFAS, May/June 2001; 39(2): 125 – 131

Bojsen-Moller F. Calcaneocuboid joint and stability of the longitudinal arch of the foot at high and low gear push off. J of Anatomy, 1979; 129(1): 165 – 176

Caravaggi P, Pataky T, Goulermas JY, Savage R, Crompton R. A dynamic model of the windlass mechanism of the foot: evidence for early stance phase preloading of the plantar aponeurosis. Journal of Experimental Biology. 2009 Aug 1;212(15):2491-9.

Cody J, et al. Correlation of Talar Anatomy and Subtalar Joint Alignment on Weightbearing Computed Tomography With Radiographic Flatfoot Parameters. Foot & Ankle Int, 2016; 37(8): 874 – 881

De Schepper J, Van Alsenoy K, Rijckaert J, De Mits S, Lootens T, Roosen P. Intratest reliability in determining the subtalar joint axis using the palpation technique described by K. Kirby. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association. 2012 Mar;102(2):122-9.

Elftman and Manter, The Evolution of the Human Foot, With Especial Reference To the Joints, J Anat, 1938; 70: 56

Elftman H. The transverse tarsal joint and its control. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research®. 1960 Jan 1;16:41-6.

Hicks JH. The mechanics of the foot: II. The plantar aponeurosis and the arch. Journal of anatomy. 1954 Jan;88(Pt 1):25.

Inman VT, Eberhart HD. The major determinants in normal and pathological gait. JBJS. 1953 Jul 1;35(3):543-58.

Johnson C, Christensen J. Biomechanics of the First Ray Part 1. The Effects of Peroneus Longus Function: A Three-Dimensional Kinematic Study on a Cadaver Model. JFAS, Sept/Oct 1999; 38(5): 313 – 321

Johnson C, Christensen J. Biomechanics of the First Ray Part V. The Effect of Equinus Deformity: A 3-Dimensional  Kinematic Study on a Cadaver Model. JFAS, March/Apr 2005; 44(1): 115 – 120

Kirby KA. Longitudinal arch load-sharing system of the foot. Revista Española de Podología. 2017 Jan 1;28(1):e18-26.

Kirby KA. Subtalar joint axis location and rotational equilibrium theory of foot function. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association. 2001 Oct;91(9):465-87.

Textbooks & Reviews

Berquist TH .: Imaging of the Foot and Ankle, 3rd edition .  Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA, 2011

Berquist  TH:  MRI  of  the  Musculoskeletal  System,  6th   edition .Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA 2012

Bontrager KL, Anthony BT . Textbook of Radiographic Positioning and  Related  Anatomy .  Multi-Media  Publishing,  Inc .,  Denver,  1988

Breitenseher M: MR Imaging Strategies for the Lower Extremities .Thieme, Stuttgart, Germany, 2005

Brower,  AC,  Flemming  DJ .:  Arthritis  in  Black  and  White,  3rdedition; WB Saunders Company; Philadelphia, 2012Bushong  SC:  Radiologic  Science  for  Technologists,  10th  edition .C .V . Mosby Co ., St . Louis, 2013

Carlton  RR,  Adler  AM:  R .  Principles  of  Radiographic  Imaging:  An  Art  and  Science,  4th  edition .  Thomson  Delmar  Learning,  Clifton Park,NY, 2006

Carter CE, Veale BL: Digital Radiography and PACS, 2nd edition .Elsevier, Missouri, 2014

Broden B . Roentgen examination of the subtalar joint in fractures of the calcaneus . Acta Radiol 31:85, 1949

Kite HJ . The Clubfoot . Grune and Stratton, NY 1964

Klippel JH: Primer on the Rheumatic Diseases, 13th edition . Springer, NY, NY, 2008


Allen, G . et al; “Epidemiology of complex regional pain syndrome: a  retrospective  chart  review  of  134  patients”;  Pain  80  (1999):  539-544

Anderson, D . et al; “Complex Regional Pain Syndrome of the Lower Extremity: A Retrospective Study 33 Patients”; JFAS 38 (6); 1999 . 381-387

Aronoff,  G .  et  al  ,  “American  Academy  of  Disability  Evaluating  Physicians   (AADEP)   Position   Paper:   Complex   Regional   Pain  Syndrome  I  (RSD):  “Impairment  and  Disability  Issues”;  American Academy of Pain Medicine 3 (3); 2002

Bandyk,  D .  etal;  “Surgical  Sympathectomy  for  Reflex  Sympathetic  Dystrophy Syndromes”; J of Vascular Surgery 35 (2); 269-277

Bareither  D .  Lower  Extremity  Anatomy  Course  Handout .  Scholl  College  of  Podiatric  Medicine .  Basic  Biomedical  Sciences,  1996-97

Baron RL, Strugielski CF . X-Ray Positioning . Part 1: Weightbearing Projections . Podiatric Staff, February 1989

Baron   RL,   Strugielski   CF .   X-Ray   Positioning .   Part   2:   Non   Weightbearing and Partial Weightbearing Projections . Podiatry Today, March, 1989

Baron  RL,  Strugielski  CF,  Knight  B .  X-Ray  Positioning .  Part  3:  Specialty Radiographs . Podiatry Today, September 1989

Bennett,  D .  et  al;  “Spinal  Cord  Stimulation  for  Complex  Regional  Pain Syndrome I (RSD): a Retrospective Multicenter Experience from  1995  to  1998  of  101  Patients”;  Neuromodulation  2  (3),  1999; 202-210

Carlson,  L .  et  al;  “Treatment  of  Reflex  Sympathetic  Dystrophy  Using the Stress-Loading Program”; Journal of Hand Therapy; July-September 1988; 149-154

Causton J . Projection of the sesamoid bones in the region of the first metatarsophalangeal joint . Radiology 9:39, 1943